Cavitron

Everything There Is To Know About Cavitron

Cavitron is an ultrasonic tool that allows the complete removal of dental plaque and tartar off of teeth in an exceptionally delicate way, delivering negligible harm to teeth and the roots. Its primary function is to provide cleanliness treatment to make teeth smooth and shiny. It's a high technology instrument that comes under the heading of Power scalers.

Structurally, it is a tool made of metal, having a curvy or angled hook that has been in use for a very long time. Present-day patients expect a high level of dental hygiene treatment from medical professionals, which plays a decisive role in providing that service. The benefits it offers include; Cementum protection, mechanical scrapping of plaque, water lavage treatment, a property of being bactericidal, healthy periodontal pockets, better ergonomics, and predominant access in furcations. Cementum protection and pocket lavage treatment are the main benefits that make it superior to other tools.

The useful characteristics of cavitron depend on the user's way of application. There is a comprehensive range of tips and inserts for a thorough scaling process. All the inserts and tips have intended and particular purposes. Its user must be extremely experienced in its utilization and must know what inserts or tips to use according to the requirement. A beautiful aspect of its usage is minimal time required for the whole cleaning process, thus easing the entire process for medical professionals. The user chooses which instruments to utilize depending on the type of plaque present, the patient's overall health status, and knowledge about the related clinical problem.

Clinicians regularly name any power-driven scaler as an ultrasonic scaler or simply the cavitron. But there is a distinction in available power scalers according to the needs. The two main types are sonic scalers and ultrasonic scalers. 

 

Sonic scalers 

The sonic scaler works with a frequency of 2500 to 7000 cycles/second. The movement of the tip is orbital. They use a mechanism that is simple and cheap. They have a high degree of intense noise level due to the discharge of air pressure required to accelerate the sonic handpiece tip. Still, there arises a difficulty in removing adhesive calculus because of the low frequency of scaler.

 

Ultrasonic scalers

The frequency range in which ultrasonic units operate is 20,000 and 50,000 cycles per second. Two other mechanisms help in plaque removal. The first one is the production of the high energy shock waves by the cavitation, and the second one is the acoustic micro streaming. There are two kinds of ultrasonic units: piezoelectric and magnetostrictive units. These are excellent and efficient enough to remove plaque with the help of different styles of tip.

 

Magnetostrictive works between 18000 and 45000 cycles per second. These devices use the plane metal strips in a metal rod joined to a scaling tip. The tip will accelerate in an elliptical manner when an electric current gets converted to a magnetic field. Due to the conversion of electrical energy into magnetic energy, there is heat production, and there arises a need for water- cooling. Water passing through the handpiece not only provides cooling but also the advantage of lavage.

 

The piezoelectric system works in the 25000–50000 cycles per second range, reactivation of this device is through passing electricity from the surface of the crystal, which causes the change in the crystal structure. This results in the vibration of crystal structure, which further causes the tip to accelerate linearly. Because of the water passing through the unit, the movement of the crystals or tips produces less heat.

The ultrasonic scalers are superior in their functioning and widely used compared to sonic scalers. Hence, in this discussion, we will only debate about ultrasonic scalers 

 

History of cavitron

Since the 1950s, operative dentistry used ultrasonic scalers, e.g., for removing plaque, dirt, and stains on teeth. Its first use was to prepare a cavity and eliminate tooth decay, but its use in restorative dentistry was significantly reduced after the arrival of high technology power scalers. In 1953, Catuna suggested the use of ultrasonics for cutting. This work was later extended by Zinner in 1955 and applied to plaque and calculus removal from the teeth. Syzmid and McColl embraced ultrasonic scaling techniques. In the 1960s and 1970s, these devices gained popularity, but minimal insert tip styles bounded its functionality just for gross scaling. In the 1980s, thin ultrasonic tips were developed and used for removing calculus below the gum surface and curved tip for the deep periodontal pockets and furcation areas. During this period, different research also popped up, indicating that using ultrasonics to remove plaque is just as beneficial as manual scaling. This led to an effective form of treatment for non-surgical therapy gum disease and for redeeming those specialists who entirely accepted ultrasonic scaling. 

Currently, medical specialists and medical students are educated and appropriately trained to work on power-scaling techniques, from sonic to ultrasonic, with possible tips and inserts styles.

 

Indications to use cavitron

Cavitron is used for dental hygiene treatments and as a complication preventative measure before many surgical procedures. Cavitron offers benefits to both the health care providers as well as patients. Here we have tried to list the indications for using cavitron.

 

Large calculus deposition: with time, bacteria and tartar start to accumulate and later harden on the tooth surface, which can cause tooth decay. It is the priority of your hygienist to use cavitron to remove that plaque. 

 

Periodontal/gum disease: Plaque deposition also sticks beneath the gum area. As it keeps on accumulating, calculus pockets get formed that disturb the nearby gums and teeth. Progressively it leads to gum disease. In this case, cavitron is the perfect tool for cleaning that dirt away from every nook and cranny and controlling the initial stage of gum disease. Specifically, if the calculus pockets are greater than 4mm, they work more efficiently than other tools or procedures. Moreover, if the problem is recurring; still, cavitron is the best choice for gentle and painless cleaning.

 

Weak teeth: As already discussed, its gentle and effective cleaning makes cavitron likely the best option to treat the elderly having weakened and painful teeth and gums. Cavitron would neither disturb the enamel nor cause sensitivity. On the other hand, manual scaling would be too vigorous with potential force, hence increasing the sensitivity of the teeth. 

 

Other possible indications include:

  • Initial debridement in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. This condition gets reduced by scrapping off the accumulated plaques.
  • Debridement before oral surgery
  • For Removing orthodontic cement 
  • Removing extending margins of restorations

 

Complications of cavitron

Even though cavitron is utilized routinely on patients, there are not many risks related to its utilization. Sometimes, it may bring about potential damage to both the patient and the user.

 

  • Damaging pulp. While using cavitron, the heat energy produced may sometimes cause a detrimental effect on the tooth pulp leading to permanent pulpitis.
  • Cavitation. Cavitron can injure red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Platelets are most sensitive to that shear force produced by it, which can lead to the formation of thrombus in vessels. If it forms in the vessel distributing blood to the pulp, it can lead to tooth death, also known as cavitation. 
  • Reduced dexterity. Vibrations produced while using it can cause hindrance in the flow of blood that exhibits as numbness, tingling sensation, and reduced hand dexterity. Most of the cases occur after its prolonged use.
  • Aerosol spray. Cavitron tip produces atomized water spray that can be a source of pathogenic spread. If the procedure contains blood, it can be hazardous to its operator's health. The operator must use a proper filtering face mask.
  • Hearing loss. Clinicians, as well as the patient's hearing, can be harmed by cavitron. The ultrasound waves can easily pass the bones and reach the inner ear and affect hearing. At first, it may be exhibited as Tinnitus or numbness later progressing to hearing loss.
  • Pacemaker. Using it in patients with cardiac pacemakers can be a potential risk if the waves are no more than at a distance of 37.5 cm to the pacemaker.

 

Alternatives to Cavitron

Cavitron possesses specific qualities that make it superior to manual scaling procedures and preferable for many non-surgical periodontal diseases. Manual hand scaling, however, is an alternative.

The hand scaling procedure involves a long time, with almost 10 minutes per tooth. They are similarly effective in the scrapping of the plaque and debris from easily reachable areas of teeth. The simplicity with which manuals scalers can be handled and utilized makes them easy to fit for scratching minor depositions of plaque. 

 

But there are a few drawbacks to utilizing manual scalers, for example:

  • Longer time expected to finish the teeth cleaning procedure 
  • Less successful at removing high deposits of plaque and tartar 
  • Difficult to remove stains 
  • Difficult to clean deeper periodontal pockets

 

How does cavitron work?

Cavitron tip works with a frequency of 25,000 to 50,000 cycles per second, depending on the type of generator used while applying it to the tooth surface for cleaning. If it is a 30 kHz insert, then it will complete 60,000 cycles for each second. The tip mechanically moves over the teeth and scrapes off all the depositions of plaque. That movement is very exact and longitudinal, which is unable to be replaced by manual scaling. These incredibly quick movements permit the tip to remove the calculus, which is impossible to achieve manually. Waves are generated due to the pressure in the liquid medium that forms the small atom-sized gas bubbles and results in shock waves. This causes energy and heat production that help to crack and break plaque deposits as well as bacterial cell disruption.

The other two very distinctive physiological characteristics of using ultrasonic scalers are acoustic micro streaming and turbulence. Acoustic micro streaming is generated when vibrating water over the cavitron tip produces water current strong enough to remove all the accumulated debris. The whirling effect that occurs after water current generation is acoustic turbulence, thus helping in disintegrating bacterial biofilms on teeth.

 

Specific features of cavitron

There are several designs of cavitron on the market, with different specifications; however, we are going to cite the general specifications, which should be present in every scaler.

  • Ultrasonic system working with a frequency range of 20,000 to 50,000 cycles per second.
  • Sonic system working with a frequency range of 3000 - 8000 cycles per second (cps). 
  • Efficient working even at lower power ranges
  • Have the option to alternate the power from low to medium/high power as per requirement 
  • Colorful handles to recognize tip style 
  • Approx. 4 water delivery options 
  • A lightweight, balanced ergonomic design
  • Reduced fatigue and muscle strain while holding
  • Swivel inserts
  • Durability and efficient working 
  • Easy to disinfect the smooth surface 
  • Straight, left & right tips for accessing periodontal pockets and to unreachable areas 

 

Market leaders

Cavitrons are available in the market with different designs and specs, and we are providing you with the most preferred Cavitrons by its users. We have tried to come up with the best and reliable brands from where you can buy.

  • Parkell is among the top ultrasonic scaler producers with the piezoelectric and the magnetostrictive technology. Because of durable and unmatchable quality, they are among the world's best and reliable manufacturers. Their scalers are among the best-selling scalers on amazon.
  • Hu-friedy comes up with superior and unique designs that can ensure maximum benefits to its users. They manufacture a wide range of scalers to fit the requirements of every kind of condition. Their scalers are also among the top-selling scalers on amazon.

 

Conclusions

The use of cavitrons brings the necessary therapeutic importance compared to manual scaling. If a health care provider wishes to deliver effective treatment, then the characteristics of ultrasonic scaling have made its use compulsory. A broad range of scalers with different tip styles is available. Each tip has its different functionality and access for a condition. Moreover, a suitable technique is necessary for getting maximum outcomes from its usage. Improper grip, strain, and alteration may change the tool's effectiveness and cause severe injury to the tooth structure. If there are inadequate protection and application, the scaler will reduce in efficacy. The use of damaged tips or inappropriate usage affects the optimum performance of cavitron.