Everything there is to know about a pressure tester
A pressure tester, also known as a monometer, is specially designed for blood pressure (B.P.) measurements. In general, a pressure tester is a more sophisticated term. It includes numerous devices, such as measuring the air tension of a car's wheels, or the pressing force of any liquid in a narrowed place or a valve in a pipe. A correct term for those devices is the "sphygmomanometer."
Medical practitioners often use those products to measure the blood pressure of aged people, that mostly suffer from many combined pathological statements of cardiovascular, respiratory, and other human organ systems. Those measurements are essential for the prevention of developing a massive variety of different diseases.
History of pressure testers
Evangelista Torricelli invented the first-ever known barometer (which is the essential part of the manometer) in 1643, but it was far from the look of the present-day devices. They looked like a single, very long fluid-filled mercury column. Christiaan Huygens, in 1661, developed the more complicated mechanism, which looked like a U-tube.
The man who invented one of the oldest prototypes of that device in 1849 was Eugène Bourdon, a French engineer, and watchmaker. His tube pressure gauge invention called Bourdon in his honor. The patent for this invention wad registered on the 18th of June, 1849, in Paris. Those gauges laid the foundation for the whole industry of monometers.
However, there were still several improvements, and various engineering complications, before humanity got the types of apparatuses known nowadays. The first fully functional sphygmomanometer was invented in 1889 by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch. Then, in 1901, Dr. Harvey Cushing, a neurosurgeon from the USA, took it to his homeland, making a few modernizations and becoming highly popular among the medical community.
Indication to use a sphygmomanometer
A sphygmomanometer is usually used for patients with both persistent or recurrent, too high (called hypertension), or too low (called hypotension) levels of В.P. The risks of high B.P. are strokes and infarcts. However, low values can usually be a reason for shock, hypoperfusion, faintings, and syncope.
High enforcement of the blood within the vessels most commonly affects the patient's heart's left ventricle and the aortic arch. As the blood flow has a constant, increased speed and volume, a left ventricle of the heart at first begins to show signs of hypertrophy and then dilatation. Aorta, most commonly, start to enlarge and sclerose.
Hypotension is potentially less complicated in the prolonged perspective but can present a lot of unpleasant moments for the patient who suffers from it. As the main complication of persistent hypotension usually occurs not as fast as with hypertension, some patients may not know about having that symptom in some instances.
There is also a probability that after some time, the hypotension can slowly turn into hypertension. In any case, both symptoms are mostly not independent diseases (unless it is non-essential hypertension of the elderly). There is a wide variety of different pathological statements that leads to those symptoms occurring. Among them:
- Decompensated stenosis of the mitral valve;
- Decompensated prolapse of the mitral valve;
- Cardiovascular failure;
- Respiratory failure;
- Essential hypertension of the elderly;
- Renal induced hypertension;
- Different violations in potassium sodium pump;
- Chronicle obstructive respiratory pathologies;
- Respiratory failure;
- And lots more.
Another indication for the use of the pressure testers can be different anesthesiologists' manipulations during surgeries. The pressure tester appliance is essential for prolonged measurement of the patient's B.P., because, during those procedures, neurogenic shock may occur. And the only possible way to determine symptoms when the patient is already unconscious is to use pressure tester every few minutes.
Also, every examination by therapeutist or general practitioners of people older than 50 years, should include a measurement of B.P. Those indicators in combination with a wide variety of different other medical information, obtained by a doctor, may help a lot in verifying a correct diagnosis and prescribing the most appropriate and complex possible treatment.
Complications in using a pressure tester
Potentially, while using those tools, there is almost no way that something can go wrong. The procedure is strict and extremely easy to perform, although sometimes recalibration may be needed. However, according to most general guidances, only medical practitioners can provide it. Inaccurate indications may lead to multiple diagnostic errors and wrong treatment prescribing. Allergic reactions are among other complications that may occur. They mainly happen with patients with highly sensitive skin types, and when the cuffs of the pressure tester contain synthetical or low-quality fiber. In any case, with correctly calibrated tools, the patient mostly has no time for sensibilization, as the whole procedure, in that case, goes very fast.
General Specifications of a pressure tester
Nowadays, there are various types of pressure testers for purchase on the market. Generally, they all work following the same primary principle. We took an existing panel of different monometers, virtually combined them, and got the following results:
- Measurement range - up to 2000 mmHg
- Accuracy - between 0. 025 and 0. 1 % F.S.
- Size of the sleeve - 10 x 15cm;
- Weight - up to 8 oz
- Wetted parts - fully dry and clean
- Media compatibility - optional
- Measurement rating - twice as big, as to accuracy
- Mounting - strictly portable
- Primary corpus material - stainless steel
- Relative Cost - up to $ 350
- Primary inner environment - non-corrosive gases
Those specifications mainly characterize various digital manometers for personal and general purposes. As mentioned above, all of the sphygmomanometers types are mostly working by the same principle, so even though they might vary in weight and size, lots of other specs will be matched up.
As we mentioned above, plenties of different models of manometers are available nowadays on the market. The overall plurality of selling pressure testers keeps growing every day. Already registered manufacturers continue to increase the whole number of their lineups slowly. In addition to that, various new fabricators come to the marketplace. So we had to perform an amazingly complex study to determine the market leaders. They appeared to be:
- KMT GMBH;
- WALTER STAUFFENBERG GMBH & C.O. K.G.;
- BMG-BAUMGART GMBH & C.O. K.G.;
- Value extinguishers;
- BD SENSORS GMBH;
- HYTORC TECHNOLOGIES GMBH;
- Imperial Precision Instrument;
- Manfred Junamann Mess;
There are still plenty of different pretty good and mediocre manufacturers that don't hit this list. Generally, nowadays, there are more than seven hundred fabricators of those devices present on the market. Even though new types of those devices do not show significantly better results than the old ones, their overall number, despite any obstacles, keeps growing.
Pressure testers are devices used in medicine mostly for measuring the intensity of blood oppress vascular walls. They are also widely used in various mechanical, engineering, and heavy-machinery apparatuses. The most common indications for medical use of those apparatuses are hyper and hypotonia symptoms, which may be caused by a large-scale variety of different pathological states.
Nowadays, plenty of different devices of those types exist, and the market keeps growing every day. Even though there are many remarkably high-quality products among them, lots of those devices still need more research before full clinical application, which is essential for this category of digital manometers. Without any doubt, the future will grant us at least a few different types of those tools, indications for their uses, and, probably, possible complications.